Normal Colon, El Salvador Atlas of Gastrointestinal VideoEndoscopy. A Large Database of Images and Video Clips with Cases Reported.
El Salvador Atlas of Gastrointestinal VideoEndoscopy
Normal Video Colonoscopy. Showing characteristic triangular folds of the transverse colon. With the patient in left lateral decubitus position, a long, flexible, lighted viewing tube (colonoscope) is inserted through the rectum into the colon. The scope is advanced and maneuvered while the lumen and walls of the colon are visualized by projections onto a monitor screen. The colonoscope has channels through which instruments can be passed in order to perform biopsies, remove polyps, or cauterize bleeding. Air, water, and suction can be applied to help provide a clearer visual field for inspection.

Normal Video Colonoscopy.

 Showing characteristic triangular folds of the transverse
 colon.

 With the patient in left lateral decubitus position, a long, flexible,
 lighted viewing tube (colonoscope) is inserted through the rectum
 into the colon. The scope is advanced and maneuvered while the
 lumen and walls of the colon are visualized by projections onto a
 monitor screen. The colonoscope has channels through which
 instruments can be passed in order to perform biopsies, remove
 polyps, or cauterize bleeding. Air, water, and suction can be
 applied to help provide a clearer visual field for inspection.

 For more endoscopic details download the video clip by
 clicking on the endoscopic image.
 All endoscopic images shown in this Atlas contain video
 clips.


                                         Medline.

Video Colonoscopy. This picture as well as the video clip display a fragment  of a colonoscopy.  The goal for a complete examination is to reach the cecum and, in some cases, the terminal ileum. Landmarks that may help to determine if this has been achieved include visualization of the appendiceal orifice and the ileocecal valve. Transillumination above the right inguinal canal also suggests cecal intubation.

Video Colonoscopy.

 This picture as well as the video clip display a fragment
 of a colonoscopy.

 The goal for a complete examination is to reach the cecum and, in
 some cases, the terminal ileum. Landmarks that may help to
 determine if this has been achieved include visualization of the
 appendiceal orifice and the ileocecal valve. Transillumination
 above the right inguinal canal also suggests cecal intubation.

.                                         Medline.

Colonoscopy with The narrow band imaging (NBI).  The narrow band imaging (NBI) system consists of a sequential electronic endoscope system and a source of   light equipped with new narrow band filters, yielding very  clear images of microvessels on mucosal surfaces.

Video Endoscopic Sequence 1 of 3.

Colonoscopy with The narrow band imaging (NBI)

 The narrow band imaging (NBI) system consists of a
 sequential electronic endoscope system and a source of
 light equipped with new narrow band filters, yielding very
 clear images of microvessels on mucosal surfaces.

A newly developed narrow-band imaging (NBI) system, which uses modified optical filters, can yield clear images of microvessels and surface structure in gastric and colonic diseases.

Video Endoscopic Sequence 2 of 3.

 A newly developed narrow-band imaging (NBI) system,
 which uses modified optical filters, can yield clear images
 of microvessels and surface structure in gastric and colonic
 diseases.

NBI displays enhanced images of capillaries in the mucosal surface and detailed mucosal texture by irradiating two narrow wave bands (390?445 nm/530?550 nm) which are strongly absorbed by circulating hemoglobin. If signal processing is performed using a pseudo-narrow band image, the state of mucosa tissues and observation conditions influence the results and good effects cannot be obtained. However, with NBI, the wavelength of the irradiating light itself is altered, and capillaries in the mucosal surface and detailed mucosal texture can thus be processed effectively and stably.

Video Endoscopic Sequence 3 of 3.

 NBI displays enhanced images of capillaries in the
 mucosal surface and detailed mucosal texture by
 irradiating two narrow wave bands (390–445 nm/530–550
 nm) which are strongly absorbed by circulating hemoglobin.
 If signal processing is performed using a pseudo-narrow
 band image, the state of mucosa tissues and observation
 conditions influence the results and good effects cannot be
 obtained. However, with NBI, the wavelength of the
 irradiating light itself is altered, and capillaries in the
 mucosal surface and detailed mucosal texture can thus be
 processed effectively and stably.

The Cecum. Normal view of the ileocecal valve is observed. The ileocecal valve is the opening between the large and small intestines. It often gets stuck shut or open. It needs to be free to open or shut at appropriate times. Palm down to test for stuck shut, palm up for stuck open. To correct stuck shut valve: apply pressure down and out over valve. To correct stuck open valve: push in and up over area. The location is about 2 inches below the appendix.

The Cecum.

 Normal view of the ileocecal valve is observed.
 The ileocecal valve is the opening between the large
 and small intestines. It often gets stuck shut or open. It
 needs to be free to open or shut at appropriate times. Palm
 down to test for stuck shut, palm up for stuck open. To
 correct stuck shut valve: apply pressure down and out over
 valve. To correct stuck open valve: push in and up over
 area. The location is about 2 inches below the appendix.

 



                                          Medline.

Cecum and Ileocecal valve, normal view looking into the cecum. Characteristic land marks of the appendiceal orifice and ileocecal valve (upper left).

The Cecum.

 Cecum and Ileocecal valve, normal view looking into the
 cecum. Characteristic land marks of the appendiceal orifice
 and ileocecal valve (upper left). 





                                          Medline.

Cecum with appendiceal orifice.View of the crows´s foot appearance of the haustral folds. Appendiceal opening may be found in the cecum in up to twenty percents of cases. Characteristic appearance is a dimple-like depression about 5mm in diameter. When there has been previous surgery, the mouth of the appendix may be eroded, giving the appendiceal stump a polypoid appearance.

Cecum with appendiceal orifice.

 View of the “crows´s foot” appearance of the haustral folds.
 Appendiceal opening may be found in the cecum in up to
 20% of cases.  Characteristic appearance is a dimple-like
 depression about 5mm in diameter.   When there has been
 previous surgery, the mouth of the appendix may be
 eroded, giving the appendiceal stump a polypoid
 appearance.


 

This four images and videos displays a full colonoscopy ( withdrawal)   from the cecum to the rectum. The image displays the orifice of the appendix that is one of the three parameters of the cecum. Others parameters are: the ileocecal valve and the three taenia coli converge at the apex of the cecum, usually with the appendiceal  orifice at the point of convergence.The video clip displays the colonoscopy from the cecum to ascending colon.

Video Endoscopic Sequence 1 of 4.

 This four images and videos displays a full colonoscopy
 ( withdrawal)  from the cecum to the rectum.
 The image displays the orifice of the appendix that is one
 of the three parameters of the cecum. Others parameters
 are: the ileocecal valve and the three taenia coli
 converge at the apex of the cecum, usually with the
 appendiceal orifice at the point of convergence.
 The video clip displays the colonoscopy from the cecum to
 ascending colon.
  
   

Prominent bluish liver shadow due to adjacent liver. The video clip displays a video colonoscopy from the ascending colon to hepatic angle and transverse colon. This colonoscopy is the sequence of the above.

Video Endoscopic Sequence 2 of 4.

 Prominent bluish liver shadow due to adjacent liver.
 The video clip displays a video colonoscopy from the
 ascending colon to hepatic angle and transverse colon.
 This colonoscopy is the sequence of the above.

 

 

                                          Medline.

The video clip exhibit a video colonoscopy from the transverse colon, spleen flexure with prominent bluish spleen shadow, the descending and sigmoid.

Video Endoscopic Sequence 3 of 4.

 The video clip exhibit a video colonoscopy from the
 transverse colon, spleen flexure with prominent bluish
 spleen shadow, the descending and sigmoid.




                                          Medline.

The rectum seen in retroflexed maneuver. The video clip display a colonoscopy that is the sequence of the above, from the sigmoid, rectal valves and the anus display a retroflexed maneuver to visualize the rectum,  prior to withdrawal and  completion of video colonoscopy.

Video Endoscopic Sequence 4 of 4.

 The rectum seen in retroflexed maneuver.

 The video clip display a colonoscopy that is the sequence
 of the above, from the sigmoid, rectal valves and the anus
 display a retroflexed maneuver to visualize the rectum,
 
prior to withdrawal and completion of video colonoscopy.
   

The Cecum. Ileocecal valve and the confluence of the tree taenias. See the video by clicking on the image, you can appreciate the ileocecal valve from which a valve emerges air bubble. The ileocecal valve is where the small intestine empties into the large intestine and there is a valve behind the fold that we are looking at. You can see that this fold is thicker than the fold on the bottom of the screen where there is no such valve. In the distance, we see the end of the colon, which is otherwise known as the cecum. This is completely normal.

The Cecum.

 Ileocecal valve and the confluence of the tree taenias.
 See the video by clicking on the image, you can
 appreciate the ileocecal valve from which a valve
 emerges air bubble.
 The ileocecal valve is where the small intestine empties
 into the large intestine and there is a valve behind the fold
 that we are looking at. You can see that this fold is
 thicker than the fold on the bottom of the screen where
 there is no such valve. In the distance, we see the end of
 the colon, which is otherwise known as the cecum. This is
 completely normal.

 

Splenic Flexure.  The video clip shows the peristalsis over the spleen.

Splenic Flexure.
 

 The video clip shows the peristalsis over the spleen.

Splecnic Flexure.  A prominent spleen is observed.

Splecnic Flexure.

            A prominent spleen is observed.

Normal Video Colonoscopy showing characteristic triangular folds of the transverse colon.

 Transverse colon.

 Normal Video Colonoscopy showing characteristic
 triangular folds of the transverse colon.

 

 

 Medline. Safety and efficacy of colonoscopy after myocardial
 infarction. An analysis of 100 study patients and 100 control patients at
 two tertiary cardiac referral hospitals.

 

The video clip displays the sigmoid and rectum in  retroflexed maneuver observing the rectal valves  Retroflexed maneuver offers additional views of the colon which increases the sensitivity of  the procedure in some cases.

 Sigmoid in retrofled view.

 Rcto-Sigmoid seen en retroflexed maneuver.

 The video clip displays the sigmoid and rectum in
 retroflexed maneuver observing the rectal valves
 Retroflexed maneuver offers additional views of the
 colon which increases the sensitivity of the procedure in
 some cases.  

Inverted appendix. Cecum: Appendiceal Orifice. This is a photograph of an inverted appendix which an inexperienced endoscopist could mistakenly take for a polyp.  Attempts to remove this polyp could potentially cause perforation.

Cecum: Appendiceal Orifice.

 This is a photograph of an inverted appendix which an
 inexperienced endoscopist could
mistakenly take for a
 polyp.
 Attempts to remove this 'polyp' could potentially cause
 perforation.
 

Magnifying Colonoscopy. This image displays a tiny eritematous lesion of the rectum seen with magnifying colonoscope, to appreciate this lesion you should see the video clip.

 Magnifying Colonoscopy

 This image displays a tiny eritematous lesion of the
 rectum seen with magnifying colonoscope, to appreciate
 this lesion you should see the video clip.

 

 


 

 

This artery is observed with a  magnifying colonoscope.

Magnifying Colonoscopy.

 In this image and the video clip a rectal artery is seen
 using a magnifying colonoscope.