El Salvador Atlas of Gastrointestinal VideoEndoscopy. A Large Database of Images and Video Clips with Cases Reported.
El Salvador Atlas of Gastrointestinal VideoEndoscopy
Normal villi of the ileum. Tips of the villous projections look like dots.

Video Endoscopic Sequence 1 of 2.

 Terminal ileum.

 Normal villi of the ileum. Tips of the villous projections look
 like dots.

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Finger-like villi are clearly observed.

Video Endoscopic Sequence 2 of 2.

 Terminal ileum.

 Finger-like villi are clearly observed.

Terminal Ileum. The terminal ileum is notable for the speckled light pattern due to the presence of villi and lymphoid nodules. This is less striking  in the ileum than in the jejunum.

Terminal Ileum.

 The terminal ileum is notable for the speckled light pattern
 due to the presence of villi and lymphoid nodules. This is
 less striking in the ileum than in the jejunum.

Colonoscopy is an established procedure for investigating patients with diseases of the colon and terminal ileum, including patients with prior colonic adenomas or cancer, fecal occult blood loss, a family history of cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, evaluation of iron deficiency anemia and patients with hematochezia.  However, although it is expected that endoscopists should be able to intubate the cecum in 90% of attempts, in practice this is followed less often than not. On several occasions even a complete colonoscopic examination may not be possible or may not show any abnormality in patients with hematochezia. Moreover, during active bleeding subtle changes in the colon may not be appreciated and sometimes even gross lesions may be missed.

Video Endoscopic Sequence 1 of 3.

 Terminal ileum.

 Colonoscopy is an established procedure for investigating
 patients with diseases of the colon and terminal ileum,
 including patients with prior colonic adenomas or cancer,
 fecal occult blood loss, a family history of cancer,
 inflammatory bowel disease, evaluation of iron deficiency
 anemia and patients with hematochezia. However, although
 it is expected that endoscopists should be able to intubate
 the cecum in 90% of attempts, in practice this is followed
 less often than not. On several occasions even a
 complete colonoscopic examination may not be possible or
 may not show any abnormality in patients with
 hematochezia. Moreover, during active bleeding subtle
 changes in the colon may not be appreciated and
 sometimes even gross lesions may be missed
.

 

Due to this argument and the fact that most of the bleeding will stop by itself, some workers advise that colonoscopy should be performed only after cessation of active bleeding and after proper colonic preparation[ .On the contrary, others prefer to perform colonoscopy as an emergent procedure, so that more lesions are detected early enough for endoscopic therapy to be applied.

Video Endoscopic Sequence 2 of 3.

 Due to this argument and the fact that most of the bleeding
 will stop by itself, some workers advise that colonoscopy
 should be performed only after cessation of active bleeding
 and after proper colonic preparation. On the contrary,
 others prefer to perform colonoscopy as an emergent
 procedure, so that more lesions are detected early enough
 for endoscopic therapy to be applied.
.

Terminal ileoscopy is an integral part of complete colonoscopy. Retrograde terminal ileoscopy has been noted to be useful in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, diarrhea, lymphoma, cytomegalovirus-induced ileitis, tuberculosis, portal hypertension and a host of other conditions involving the terminal ileum.

Video Endoscopic Sequence 3 of 3.

Ileoscopy

 Terminal ileoscopy is an integral part of complete
 colonoscopy. Retrograde terminal ileoscopy has been
 noted to be useful in patients with inflammatory bowel
 disease, diarrhea, lymphoma, cytomegalovirus-induced
 ileitis, tuberculosis, portal hypertension and a host of other
 conditions involving the terminal ileum.

 In a recent study, It have been reported that obtaining
 blind biopsies from even a normal-appearing terminal
 ileum is useful in patients suspected to have ileocecal
 tuberculosis.

 

The small intestine is the most difficult part of the gastrointestinal tract to evaluate due to its length and complex loops. Disadvantages of conventional endoscopic techniques such as push enteroscopy and colonoscopy with ileoscopy include limited endoscopic examination of the small bowel and sedation requirements. A complete endoscopic evaluation was previously possible only with intraoperative endoscopy.

Video Endoscopic Sequence 1 of 2.

Enteroscopy

 The small intestine is the most difficult part of the
 gastrointestinal tract to evaluate due to its length and
 complex loops. Disadvantages of conventional endoscopic
 techniques such as push enteroscopy and colonoscopy with
 ileoscopy include limited endoscopic examination of the
 small bowel and sedation requirements. A complete
 endoscopic evaluation was previously possible only with
 intraoperative endoscopy.

 

Enteroscopy allowing complete examination of small intestine, notoriously one of the most inaccessible areas of the GI tract. Intestinal bleeding remains the most common indication for enteroscopy. Bleeding may be acute or chronic, observed or occult in nature. The small intestine beyond the ligament of Trietz may be the source of bleeding in up to 5% of patients presenting with gastrointestinal bleeding.

Video Endoscopic Sequence 2 of 2.

 Enteroscopy allowing complete examination of small
 intestine, notoriously one of the most inaccessible areas of
 the GI tract.

 Intestinal bleeding remains the most common indication for
 enteroscopy. Bleeding may be acute or chronic, observed
 or occult in nature. The small intestine beyond the ligament
 of Trietz may be the source of bleeding in up to 5% of
 patients presenting with gastrointestinal bleeding.