Normal Stomach, El Salvador Atlas of Gastrointestinal VideoEndoscopy. A Large Database of Images and Video Clips with Cases Reported.
El Salvador Atlas of Gastrointestinal VideoEndoscopy
Normal architecture of the gastric folds is observed.          The recognition of abnormalities requires through knowledge of the normal appearance. This truism is particularly applicable to diagnostic endoscopy.

 The Normal Architecture of the Gastric Folds is observed.

 The recognition of abnormalities requires through
 knowledge of the normal appearance. This truism is
 particularly applicable to diagnostic endoscopy.

 

 

 For more endoscopic details download the video clips by
 clicking on the endoscopic images, wait to be downloaded
 complete then press Alt and Enter; thus you can observe
 the video in full screen.

 All endoscopic images shown in this Atlas contain
 video clips.

Normal architecture of the gastric folds is observed.          The recognition of abnormalities requires through knowledge of the normal appearance. This truism is particularly applicable to diagnostic endoscopy.

Gastric Folds.

 

High resolution video endoscopy with zoom. In the video clip you can see the different levels of zoom 1x, 5x and 8x, furthermore this equipment has magnifying levels of 150x the equivalent of a microscope.

Video Endoscopic Sequence 1 of 8.

 High resolution video endoscopy with zoom.
 In the video clip you can see the different levels of zoom
 1x, 5x and 8x, furthermore this equipment has magnifying
 levels of 150x the equivalent of a microscope.
 
 
 

The gastric folds are appreciated.

Video Endoscopic Sequence 2 of 8.

 The gastric folds are appreciated.
 

The gastric body is observed in retroflexed maneuver.

Video Endoscopic Sequence 3 of 8.

 The gastric body is observed in retroflexed maneuver.

The cardias and fundus regions.

Video Endoscopic Sequence 4 of 8.

 The cardias and fundus regions.

The antrum and the incisura angularis.

Video Endoscopic Sequence 5 of 8.

 The antrum and the incisura angularis.

 Gastric Antrum, the peristaltism is observed.

Video Endoscopic Sequence 6 of 8.

 Gastric Antrum, the peristaltism is observed.

In this image as well as the video clip the peristaltism is seen.

Video Endoscopic Sequence 7 of 8.

 In this image as well as the video clip the peristaltism is
 seen.

 

 

The pylorus and antrum.

Video Endoscopic Sequence 8 of 8.

 The pylorus and antrum.

High resolution image: the gastric body. The rugal folds of the body running longitudinally towards the antrum.

Video Endoscopic Sequence 1 of 6.

The gastric body.

 High resolution image.

 The rugal folds of the body running longitudinally towards
 the antrum.

 

Normal rugal folds of the body.

Video Endoscopic Sequence 2 of 6.

 Normal rugal folds of the body.

 

The body is seen in retroflexed view, normal rugal folds.

Video Endoscopic Sequence 3 of 6.

 The body is seen in retroflexed view, normal rugal folds.

 

The fornix and cardia. The fornix and cardia. The fornix (the vault of the stomach) and the cardia (surrounding the instrument's shaft) are better observed by retroverting the instrument's tip.

Video Endoscopic Sequence 4 of 6.

 The fornix and cardia.
 The fornix and cardia. The fornix (the vault of the stomach)
 and the cardia (surrounding the instrument's shaft) are
 better observed by retroverting the instrument's tip.

 

More images and video clips of the gastric corpus.

Video Endoscopic Sequence 5 of 6.

 More images and video clips of the gastric corpus.

 

Symmetrical contraction is observed, The peristalsis of the antrum.

Video Endoscopic Sequence 6 of 6.

 Symmetrical contraction is observed, The peristalsis of the
 antrum.

 

 

In this endoscopic sequence the gastric folds are observed with close up images using a magnifying endoscope, in the following images and video clips the chromoendoscopy is appreciated using methylene blue staining and the gastric camera has been filled partially with water, which causes a special and combined acoustic action. We recommended seeing the complete sequence of video clips.

Video Endoscopic Sequence 1 of 8.

 In this endoscopic sequence the gastric folds are observed
 with close up images using a magnifying endoscope, in the
 following images and video clips the chromoendoscopy is
 appreciated using methylene blue staining and the gastric
 camera has been filled partially with water, which causes a
 special and combined acoustic action.
 
 
We recommended seeing the complete sequence of video
 c
lips.

Tissue staining during endoscopy (chromoendoscopy) is a technique used to study the fine details of the mucosa throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Chromoendoscopy and vital staining are simple adjunct methods to improve the yield of endoscopic diagnosis, for early diagnosis of dysplasias and diagnosis of superficial and depressed carcinomas. So far the experience shows improvements over traditional endoscopic diagnosis. Especially with the help of high resolutions videoendoscopes, more and more lesions are recognized in the GI tract, that were not seen with either fiberendoscopes or first generation videoendoscopes Contrast staining is used to enhance the mucosal surface before endoscopic mucosectomy of neoplastic and malignant lesions. The diagnostic advantage of vital staining is not yet entirely proven, therefore these methods are not widely accepted.

Video Endoscopic Sequence 2 of 8.

Immersion Endoscopy

 Tissue staining during endoscopy (chromoendoscopy) is a
 technique used to study the fine details of the mucosa
 throughout the gastrointestinal tract.
 Chromoendoscopy and vital staining are simple adjunct
 methods to improve the yield of endoscopic diagnosis, for
 early diagnosis of dysplasias and diagnosis of superficial
 and depressed carcinomas. So far the experience shows
 improvements over traditional endoscopic diagnosis.
 Especially with the help of high resolutions
 videoendoscopes, more and more lesions are
 recognized in the GI tract, that were not seen with either
 fiberendoscopes or first generation videoendoscopes
 Contrast staining is used to enhance the mucosal surface
 before endoscopic mucosectomy of neoplastic and
 malignant lesions. The diagnostic advantage of vital
 staining is not yet entirely proven, therefore these methods
 are not widely accepted.

Submarine in the deep ocean. The acoustic action of the water, with the help of a magnifying endoscope, the gastric mucosa is stained with methylene blue, offer a new perspective for more accurate diagnosis mainly in search of tiny injuries and to even detect carcinomas in early stages.

Video Endoscopic Sequence 3 of 8.

“Submarine in the deep ocean”.

 The acoustic action of the water, with the help of a
 magnifying endoscope, the gastric mucosa is stained with
 methylene blue, offer a new perspective for more accurate
 diagnosis mainly in search of tiny injuries and to even
 detect carcinomas in early stages.

 

It has been reported that the fine mucosal patterns of the gastric pits can be observed with magnification and this may assist in preliminary evaluation prior to histological diagnosis.

Video Endoscopic Sequence 4 of 8.

 It has been reported that the fine mucosal patterns of the
 gastric pits can be observed with magnification and this
 may assist in preliminary evaluation prior to histological
 diagnosis.

 

Submarine in the deep ocean. . Chromoendoscopy (vital staining and upper endoscopy) refers to the use of vital stains to identify abnormal mucosa.

Video Endoscopic Sequence 5 of 8.

 Chromoendoscopy (vital staining and upper endoscopy)
 refers to the use of vital stains to identify abnormal
 mucosa.

Submarine in the deep ocean.

Video Endoscopic Sequence 6 of 8.

Immersion Endoscopy.

“The Submarine in the deep ocean”.

Submarine in the deep ocean.

Video Endoscopic Sequence 7 of 8.

Immersion Endoscopy.

“Submarine in the deep ocean”.

Submarine in the deep ocean. With this method, previously described, it seems to be promising mainly in search of tiny injuries and to even detect carcinomas in early stages.

Video Endoscopic Sequence 8 of 8.

 With this method, previously described, it seems to be
 promising mainly in search of tiny injuries and to even
 detect carcinomas in early stages.

 

The image and the video clip display the gastric body. There are some sub-epilelial hemorrhage.

Video Endoscopic Sequence 1 of 5.

 The image and the video clip display the gastric body.
 There are some sub-epilelial hemorrhage.
 
 

The gastric fundus retroflexed image. The normal appearance of the gastric fundus on upper GI endoscopy is shown.

Video Endoscopic Sequence 2 of 5.

 The gastric fundus retroflexed image.
 
The normal appearance of the gastric fundus on upper GI
 endoscopy is shown.

The image and the video display the peristalsis Peristalsis is a distinctive pattern of smooth muscle contractions that propels foodstuffs distally through the esophagus and intestines. Peristalsis is a manifestation of two major reflexes within the enteric nervous system that are stimulated by a bolus of foodstuff in the lumen. Mechanical distension and perhaps mucosal irritation stimulate afferent enteric neurons.

Video Endoscopic Sequence 3 of 5.

 The image and the video display the peristalsis

 
Peristalsis is a distinctive pattern of smooth muscle
 contractions that propels foodstuffs distally through the
 esophagus and intestines.
 Peristalsis is a manifestation of two major reflexes within
 the enteric nervous system that are stimulated by a bolus of
 foodstuff in the lumen.
Mechanical distension and perhaps
 mucosal irritation stimulate afferent enteric neurons.

The image and the video display the peristalsis and the antrum .

Video Endoscopic Sequence 4 of 5.

 The image and the video display the peristalsis and the
 antrum.

The pylorus. The normal appearance of the pylorus is observed.

Video Endoscopic Sequence 5 of 5.

 The pylorus.

The normal appearance of the pylorus is observed.

Endosonography Image of Gastric body. Radial Endosonography EUS.  EUS provides high-frequency imaging in the GI tract providing more detailed images of the gut wall and surrounding structures than any other imaging  modality. The method has been most useful in evaluating submucosal lesions, staging cancer, and diagnosing pancreatic and biliary diseases. High-frequency EUS produces uniquely clear and detailed images of the wall of the gastrointestinal tract  and surrounding organs. No other current imaging method not computed tomography (CT)  and not magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can show the gut wall from the esophagus to the rectum, as a series of layers with histologic correlates.

Endosonography Sequence 1 of 2.

Endosonography Image of Gastric body.

 Radial Endosonography EUS.
 EUS provides high-frequency imaging in the GI tract providing
 more detailed images of the gut wall and surrounding structures
 than any other imaging modality. The method has been most
 useful in evaluating submucosal lesions, staging cancer, and
 diagnosing pancreatic and biliary diseases.
 High-frequency EUS produces uniquely clear and detailed
 images of the wall of the gastrointestinal tract and
 surrounding organs.

 No other current imaging method not computed tomography
 (CT) and not magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can show the
 gut wall from the esophagus to the rectum, as a series of layers
 with histologic correlates.
 

 
 
 

EUS can detect lesions as small as 2-3 mm in size and is the best method for determining the 5 echogenic layers of the stomach. The 5 layers are histologically correlated with the mucosa (layer 1), deep mucosa (layer 2), submucosa (layer 3), muscularis propria (layer 4), and serosa or adventitia (layer 5).

Endosonography Sequence 2 of 2.

 EUS can detect lesions as small as 2-3 mm in size and is the best
 method for determining the 5 echogenic layers of the stomach
. The 5 layers are histologically correlated with the mucosa
 (layer 1), deep mucosa (layer 2), submucosa (layer 3), muscularis
 propria (layer 4), and serosa or adventitia (layer 5).

The gastric folds. The gastric fold patterns changes with the degree of air insufflation. This endoscopy displays a video clip of the gastric body, Peristaltism of the antrum and the retroflexed maneuver.

The gastric folds.

 The gastric fold patterns changes with the degree of air
 insufflation.
 This endoscopy displays a video clip of the gastric body,
 peristaltism of the antrum and the retroflexed maneuver.
   

 

.  The greater gastric curvature is seen below, the lesser gastric curvature is seen upper, the anterior wall to the left and posterior wall to the right.

Video Endoscopy of the Gastric Body.

 The greater gastric curvature is seen below, the lesser
 gastric curvature is seen upper, the anterior wall to the left
 and posterior wall to the right.
 

   

The video displays an entire video endoscopy. The fundus is seen, as well as the gastric body and the antrum with peristalsis.  The recognition of abnormalities requires through knowledge of the normal appearance. This truism is particularly applicable to diagnostic endoscopy.

                      
 The video displays an entire video endoscopy.
 The fundus is seen, as well as the gastric body and
 the antrum with peristalsis.
 

Normal Stomach. Rugal folds of the corpus in a mild-distended stomach.

Normal Stomach.

 Rugal folds of the corpus in a mild-distended stomach.
 

 

Magnifying Endoscopy. In this image and the video a gastric corpus is observed  with magnifying. Magnified blood vessels are observed. There are parameters of these structures for  the detection of early gastric carcinoma as well as the helicobacter pylori using magnifying endoscopes. It has been reported that the fine mucosal patterns of the gastric pits can be observed with magnification and this may assist in preliminary evaluation prior to histological diagnosis.

Magnifying Endoscopy.

 In this image and the video a gastric corpus is observed
 with magnifying. Magnified blood vessels are observed.
 There are parameters of these structures for the detection
 of early gastric carcinoma as well as the helicobacter
 pylori using magnifying endoscopes.
 It has been reported that the fine mucosal patterns of the
 gastric pits can be observed with magnification and this may
 assist in preliminary evaluation prior to histological
 diagnosis.

 
 

Fundus retroflexed image. The video clip displays some palpitation through the fundus.

Fundus retroflexed image.

 The video clip displays some palpitation through the fundus.
 

Endoscopic Insertion. The video clip shows the insertion of the endoscope from the oropharynx to the upper esophageal sphincter. The endoscope should be gently inserted forward at the right. Endoscope passing posteriorly to the cricoid cartilage and continued downward towards the cricopharyngeus muscle with its typically converging folds. It is very important to relax the patient with pseudoanalgesic therapy.

Endoscopic Insertion.

 The video clip shows the insertion of the endoscope
 from the oropharynx to the upper esophageal sphincter.
 The endoscope should be gently inserted forward at the
 right. Endoscope passing posteriorly to the cricoid cartilage
 and continued downward towards the cricopharyngeus
 muscle with its typically converging folds.

 It is very important to relax the patient with
 pseudoanalgesic therapy.
    

  In this endoscopic sequence, two endoscopes are used, one   emerges through the esophagus and the other is the one that produces the video, this last is introduced through gastrostomy fistula.

Video Endoscopic Sequence 1 of 6.

 In this endoscopic sequence, two endoscopes are used,
 one emerges through the esophagus and the other is the
 one that produces the video, this last is introduced through
 gastrostomy fistula
.

The endoscope which emerges from the cardia to the gastric camera.

Video Endoscopic Sequence 2 of 6.

 The endoscope which emerges from the cardia to the gastric camera.

 

Another image and video, in this video clip is observed that the videoendoscope leaves from the esophagus towards the stomach, which is filmed with another video endoscope which is introduced to the gastric camera through a gastrostomy fistula.

Video Endoscopic Sequence 3 of 6.

 Another image and video, in this video clip is observed that
 the videoendoscope leaves from the esophagus towards the
 stomach, which is filmed with another video endoscope
 that is introduced to the gastric camera through a
 gastrostomy fistula.

Gastric Cardias.

Video Endoscopic Sequence 4 of 6.

Gastric Cardias.

The maneuver of retroversion is observed.

Video Endoscopic Sequence 5 of 6.

 The maneuver of retroversion is observed.

The endoscope throughout the gastric camera.

Video Endoscopic Sequence 6 of 6.

The endoscope throughout the gastric camera.